Generally, law is a set of rules that are enforceable by governmental institutions. It shapes the economic, political, and social aspects of society. It also relates to a person’s rights. Some of the major types of law include personal property, commercial law, company law, criminal law, and family law.
There are two types of legal systems. The common law legal system is characterized by the doctrine of precedent, which states that decisions by the highest court in a jurisdiction bind lower courts. The civil law legal system is more flexible and judicial decisions are less detailed.
Both legal systems are characterized by argumentative theories. Common law systems are based on a syllogism and they are characterized by the use of analogy. In addition, they are typically shorter, making them easier to understand and interpret.
In a common law legal system, there is an explicit acknowledgement of decisions made by the executive branch. Laws can also be made by a single legislator. However, modern military power poses special challenges for accountability.
The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is a dispute settlement body of the United Nations. It was founded in 1946 and has considered over 170 cases. It also issues advisory opinions and judgments. The Court has considered issues such as disarmament, human rights, migrant labour, and the environment.
In addition to common law, there are two other major types of legal systems: civil law and international law. In international law, the International Law Commission (ILC) is an independent, nonprofit organization, composed of 34 members representing the world’s leading legal systems. Its purpose is to promote the progressive development of international law. It also consults with UN specialized agencies on legal issues.